Separation using GC×GC

Separation using GC×GC
INSIGHT GC×GC flow modulator
INSIGHT GC×GC flow modulator
INSIGHT GC×GC flow modulator in GC oven
INSIGHT GC×GC flow modulator in GC oven
INSIGHT GC×GC flow modulator
INSIGHT GC×GC flow modulator

INSIGHT flow modulator for GC×GC


Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) provides increased separation of complex mixtures by coupling two columns of different selectivity to separate the analytes based on two different chemical properties (e.g. volatility and polarity). The INSIGHT flow modulator from SepSolve Analytical overcomes the practical and performance difficulties experienced with other GC×GC modulator designs – for example, the volatility restrictions associated with thermal modulators.
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WHY CHOOSE INSIGHT?

  • Cryogen-free operation lowers running costs for routine GC×GC.

  • No volatility restrictions for confident analysis of VOCs (<C5) and SVOCs

  • Complete analyte transfer from 1D to 2D column

  • Excellent repeatability for routine applications – rigid retention times and peak area RSDs typically <5%.

  • Flexible configuration options, including GC×GC, heart-cut GC–GC, backflushing and parallel detection (e.g. TOF MS and FID).

  • Retrofittable to all popular GCs.

  • A compact design allows two INSIGHT devices to be configured in a single GC oven for enhanced productivity through dual-channel acquisition.

  • Streamlined instrument control and data processing using the ChromSpace® platform.

 

 


Applications

Technical note: Comprehensive two‑dimensional gas chromatography
This paper provides a short overview of the theory and practice of the rapidly-developing field of two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). Included in the discussion are a summary of the detectors used, an assessment of the options available for modulating the first-column eluate, and some recent developments in methodologies for interpreting the results.
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E-Seminar: Two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC)
SepSolve Analytical, in collaboration with Separation Science, is offering an eSeminar covering the principles and applications of two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). These presentations are available to view on-demand.
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Comprehensive screening of volatile emissions from plastics
This study demonstrates the use of a discovery platform combining thermal desorption with GC×GC–TOF MS for comprehensive screening of emissions from plastics.
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New car smell: Improved identification of odours in vehicle interior air
This study demonstrates the discovery of odour compounds using thermal desorption with GC×GC–TOF MS. This provides target and non-target screening of car trim components on a single platform, for advanced analysis of vehicle interior air quality (VIAQ).
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Improved characterisation of malodours in recycled plastics using TD–GC×GC with BenchTOF2 MS
Thermal desorption (TD) with GC×GC–TOF MS can be used for comprehensive characterisation of volatiles from recycled plastics, and the method is simple to translate to routine screening in QC labs.
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Improved characterisation of materials using pyrolysis with GC×GC–TOF MS
Pyrolysis coupled with two-dimensional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Py–GC×GC–TOF MS) can be used for quality control of consumer products, including tyres, plastics and paper.
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Discovery of biomarkers in breath: Enhancing separation and identification using GC×GC–TOF MS
This study describes the comprehensive, high-sensitivity screening of disease biomarkers, through use of sampling onto TD tubes, automated preconcentration, and GC×GC–TOF MS, with confident identification aided by Tandem Ionisation.
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Discovery of biomarkers in breath: Development and optimisation of a TD–GC×GC–TOF MS analytical platform
This study describes the development of an analytical platform based upon TD–GC×GC–TOF MS and shows its application to the collection and analysis of breath samples. The enhanced separation achieved ensures confident identification of biomarkers.
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Uncovering hidden compositional changes in breath profiles using untargeted chemometric workflows
This study describes the use of thermal desorption (TD) and GC×GC–TOF MS for exploratory profiling of biomarkers in breath, coupled with innovative data mining tools to uncover hidden compositional changes using automated untargeted workflows.
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Determining petrochemical composition by GC×GC–TOF MS/FID: Reliable, automated group-type analysis
This article illustrates how ChromSpace software, in conjunction with dual TOF MS/FID detection and Tandem Ionisation, can streamline the process of achieving robust and reliable analyte speciation and quantitation of complex petrochemicals in an acceptable time frame.
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Determining petrochemical composition by GC×GC–TOF MS/FID: The benefits of flow modulation and Tandem Ionisation
This study demonstrates the performance of a flow-modulated GC×GC system for the analysis of complex petrochemicals, with the INSIGHT modulator providing efficient and repeatable modulation without the need for expensive liquid cryogen.
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Fast and efficient group-type (PiPNA) classification of jet fuels
This study demonstrates the performance of flow-modulated GC×GC for robust group-type characterisation of jet fuels, with quantitative analysis by flame ionisation detection and confident identification of trace-level contaminants by mass spectrometry.
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Uncovering trace additives in gasoline
This study demonstrates the use of GC×GC coupled with BenchTOF2 and Tandem Ionisation to identify trace additives in gasoline, with time-saving workflows in ChromCompare+ software utilising all of the tandem data in a single workflow to automatically uncover differences between gasoline blends.
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Improving confidence in the quantitative analysis of cannabis terpenes using flow-modulated GC×GC–FID
This study demonstrates the use of flow-modulated GC×GC–FID to streamline profiling of cannabis terpenes and terpenoids. A key feature is the enhanced separation provided by GC×GC, which improves confidence in compound identity and data quality.
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Enhanced characterisation of cannabis extracts using flow-modulated GC×GC–TOF MS/FID with Tandem Ionisation
This study demonstrates the use of flow-modulated GC×GC to detect cannabinoids and terpenoids in complex cannabis extracts, with simultaneous detection by FID for robust quantitation and TOF MS for confident identification (aided by Tandem Ionisation).
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Tobacco Smoke Analysis with Tandem Ionisation
This study demonstrates the enhanced separation and unparalleled sensitivity that can be achieved in the characterisation of cigarette smoke, using thermal desorption (TD) and flow-modulated GC×GC with TOF MS, aided by Tandem Ionisation for simultaneous acquisition of NIST-quality 70 eV spectra and complementary soft EI spectra.
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Comparison of terpene profiles across cannabis strains
This study describes the use of GCxGC–FID for profiling terpenes in cannabis. A key feature is the enhanced separation provided by GC×GC, which allows common co-elutions to be resolved, improving confidence in compound identity and data quality.
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Quantitation of residual solvents and terpenes in cannabis products – a combined approach
This study describes a combined approach for fast, targeted screening of residual solvents and key terpenes, as well as a discovery route for enhanced separation of terpenes and terpenoids and greater insight into cannabis aroma.
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Comprehensive aroma profiling of cannabis using a discovery workflow
This study describes the use of GC×GC–TOF MS for exploratory profiling of terpenes and other aroma-active compounds in cannabis flowers.
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Tackling the extended list of fragrance allergens by flow-modulated GC×GC–TOF MS
This study investigates the use of flow-modulated GC×GC to analyse an 84-component allergen calibration standard, with simultaneous detection by TOF MS for confident identification and FID for robust quantitation. The validity of the method is then demonstrated with the examples of essential oils and a fragrance mix.
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Enhanced separation of hop oils by flow-modulated GC×GC–TOF MS
This study demonstrates the high performance of a flow-modulated GC×GC–MS system for the evaluation of complex hop oils, which allows effective modulation of even the most volatile components without the need for expensive liquid cryogen. Analyte speciation is also aided by Tandem Ionisation for simultaneous acquisition of hard and soft EI data.
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Detailed characterisation of essential oils by flow-modulated GC×GC and Tandem Ionisation mass spectrometry
In this study, flow-modulated GC×GC–TOF MS with Tandem Ionisation is used to characterise essential oils in fine detail, allowing the in-depth comparison of their compositions that aids rigorous quality control, particularly in the fragrance industry.
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Evaluating the authenticity of branded perfumes
This study demonstrates how the comprehensive data acquired using GC×GC–TOF MS with Tandem Ionisation® can be processed in a single, automated workflow to uncover the subtle differences between brand and imitation fragrances.
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Reliable separation and efficient group-type quantitation of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons
This paper describes the analysis of total petrochemical hydrocarbons (TPH) in environmental media using flow-modulated GC×GC–FID with quantitation on the basis of pre-defined compound groupings.
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Fast analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds using PTV-GC–TOF MS
This study demonstrates the improvements in efficiency and sensitivity that can be achieved by using programmed temperature vaporisation (PTV) with GC and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS) for the analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds relevant to environmental monitoring.
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Routine monitoring of airborne VOCs using TD–GC×GC–TOF MS/FID
This study demonstrates the suitability of a TD–GC×GC system with dual TOF MS/FID detection for the routine, automated analysis of VOCs in complex humid air samples.
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Reliable separation and efficient group-type quantitation of volatile petrochemical hydrocarbons
This paper describes the analysis of volatile petrochemical hydrocarbons (VPH) in environmental samples to monitor their fate, the risk to human health and to plan appropriate remediation strategies.
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Reliable speciation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)
This study demonstrates the use of flow-modulated GC×GC to analyse a FAME standard and FAMEs from a butter extract, with simultaneous detection by TOF MS and FID for improved speciation. Tandem Ionisation is used to add an additional level of confidence for compounds exhibiting weak molecular ions and/or similar spectra at 70 eV.
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Aroma profiling of pet food using high-capacity sorptive extraction and TD–GC×GC–TOF MS
This study demonstrates the use of high-capacity sorptive extraction, with analysis by TD–GC×GC–TOF MS, for the aroma profiling of meat-based cat food, including the reliable detection of trace off-odour components.
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Flavour profiling of milk using high‑capacity sorptive extraction and TD–GC×GC–TOF MS/FID
This study demonstrates the high performance of PDMS sorptive extraction probes, coupled with thermal desorption pre‑concentration and flow-modulated GC×GC–TOF MS/FID analysis, for the separation and identification of flavour compounds in milk.
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Comprehensive analysis of coffee bean extracts by GC×GC–TOF MS
This study shows that GC×GC with time-of-flight mass spectrometry provides a high-performance solution for screening complex coffee bean extracts for key aroma compounds.
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Comparison of aroma compounds in whisky by SPME–GC×GC–TOF MS/FID
This study demonstrates the high performance of a flow-modulated GC×GC–TOF MS system, coupled with sample preparation by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME), for the separation and identification of trace volatiles in three brands of whisky.
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Aroma profiling of hops and beer using high-capacity sorptive extraction with GC×GC–FID/TOF MS/SCD
This study demonstrates the use of a multi-hyphenated analytical system to provide flexible yet comprehensive aroma profiling of hops and beer, as well as detection of trace odour taints, on a single, fully‑automated platform.
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Automated aroma profiling of wine using sorptive extraction with GC×GC–TOF MS/SCD
This study demonstrates the use of headspace sorptive extraction coupled with GC×GC–TOF MS/SCD to provide comprehensive information on wine aroma and odour taints on a single, fully-automated, cryogen-free platform.
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Reverse engineering the aroma of plant-based meat substitutes
This study describes the use of headspace sorptive extraction with GC×GC–TOF MS to compare the volatile profiles of ground meat and plant-based substitutes.
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Investigating the quality of Darjeeling teas using comprehensive VOC fingerprints
This study demonstrates the use of immersive sorptive extraction and GC×GC–TOF MS to determine the characteristic flavour compounds in Darjeeling teas. Comparative analysis of different tea types and grades will be shown using streamlined workflows to improve quality assessment.
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Comparison of liquid smoke flavourings using GC×GC with BenchTOF2 and Tandem Ionisation
GC×GC coupled with high-performance BenchTOF2™ mass spectrometry and powerful software tools can provide comprehensive non-target screening of liquid smoke composition, to improve quality control procedures and to accelerate the development of new flavourings.
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Monitoring disinfection by-products in water using thin-film SPME coupled with GC×GC and BenchTOF MS
Thin-film solid-phase microextraction (TF-SPME) with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and BenchTOF™ time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC–TOF MS) provides efficient non-target screening of organic pollutants in water.
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