This paper provides a short overview of the theory and practice of the rapidly-developing field of two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). Included in the discussion are a summary of the detectors used, an assessment of the options available for modulating the first-column eluate, and some recent developments in methodologies for interpreting the results.
This study demonstrates the high performance of a flow-modulated GC×GC–MS system for the evaluation of complex hop oils, which allows effective modulation of even the most volatile components without the need for expensive liquid cryogen. Analyte speciation is also aided by Tandem Ionisation for simultaneous acquisition of hard and soft EI data.
In this study, flow-modulated GC×GC–TOF MS with Tandem Ionisation is used to characterise essential oils in fine detail, allowing the in-depth comparison of their compositions that aids rigorous quality control, particularly in the fragrance industry.
This preliminary study investigates the use of flow-modulated GC×GC to analyse an 84-component allergen calibration standard, with simultaneous detection by TOF MS for confident identification and FID for robust quantitation. A high degree of linearity and repeatability is demonstrated, showing that flow-modulated GC×GC is a promising approach for high-throughput quality control of fragranced products. The validity of the GC×GC–TOF MS/FID method is then demonstrated with the examples of essential oils and a fragrance mix.
This study demonstrates the suitability of a TD–GC×GC system with dual TOF MS/FID detection for the routine, automated analysis of VOCs in complex humid air samples.
This study demonstrates the enhanced separation and unparalleled sensitivity that can be achieved in the characterisation of cigarette smoke, using thermal desorption (TD) and flow-modulated GC×GC with TOF MS, aided by Tandem Ionisation for simultaneous acquisition of NIST-quality 70 eV spectra and complementary soft EI spectra.
This study demonstrates the high performance of a flow-modulated GC×GC–TOF MS system, coupled with sample preparation by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME), for the separation and identification of trace volatiles in three brands of whisky.
This study shows that GC×GC and time-of-flight mass spectrometry provides a high-performance solution for screening complex coffee extracts for key aroma compounds.
This study demonstrates the high performance of PDMS sorptive extraction probes, coupled with thermal desorption pre‑concentration and flow-modulated GC×GC–TOF MS/FID analysis, for the separation and identification of flavour compounds in milk.
This study demonstrates the use of high-capacity sorptive extraction, with analysis by TD–GC×GC–TOF MS, for the aroma profiling of meat-based cat food, including the reliable detection of trace off-odour components.
This study demonstrates the use of flow-modulated GC×GC to analyse a FAME standard and FAMEs from a butter extract, with simultaneous detection by TOF MS and FID for improved speciation. Tandem Ionisation is used to add an additional level of confidence for compounds exhibiting weak molecular ions and/or similar spectra at 70 eV.
This study demonstrates the use of flow-modulated GC×GC–FID to streamline profiling of cannabis terpenes and terpenoids. A key feature is the enhanced separation provided by GC×GC, which improves confidence in compound identity and data quality.
This study demonstrates the use of flow-modulated GC×GC to detect cannabinoids and terpenoids in complex cannabis extracts, with simultaneous detection by FID for robust quantitation and TOF MS for confident identification (aided by Tandem Ionisation).
This short paper describes a flow-modulated GC×GC–FID system from SepSolve Analytical for the analysis of total petrochemical hydrocarbons (TPH) in environmental media. We show that use of this system eliminates the time, cost and risk of error associated with conventional approaches based on solvent fractionation, as well as improving confidence in results due to the improved analyte separation achievable with GC×GC.
This study demonstrates the performance of a flow-modulated GC×GC system for the analysis of complex petrochemicals, with the INSIGHT modulator providing efficient and repeatable modulation without the need for expensive liquid cryogen.
This article illustrates how ChromSpace software, in conjunction with dual TOF MS/FID detection and Tandem Ionisation, can streamline the process of achieving robust and reliable analyte speciation and quantitation of complex petrochemicals in an acceptable time frame.
This study describes the comprehensive, high-sensitivity screening of disease biomarkers, through use of sampling onto TD tubes, automated preconcentration, and GC×GC–TOF MS, with confident identification aided by Tandem Ionisation.